Underwater Archeology (Extreme Archeology Book 1)

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Architectures of Fire attempts to present the entanglement between the physical phenomenon of fire, the pyro-technological instrument that it is, its material supports, and the human being. In this perspective, the physical process of combustion, material culture, as well as the development of human action in space, are addressed together.

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Fire is located at the centre of all pre-modern architecture. It creates the living or technological space. Fire creates architectures since it imposes geometry, from the simple circles of stone or clay, which control its spread and which are the geometrical figures of its optimal efficiency , to cone trunks, cylinders, half-spheres, half-cylinders or parallelepipeds, circular geometric figures that efficiently control the air-draught process required for combustion.

All these forms involving the circle are determined by the control and conservation of thermal energy. Architecture means not only the built space, but also the experienced space, in the present case around the pyro-instruments. Pyro-instruments involve an ergonomic, kinesthetic and visual relationship, as well as the rhythmic actions of feeding or maintaining fire at a certain technological tempo. The technological agency is structured both by the physics of the combustion phenomenon, and by the type of operation to be performed.

He has edited books on fire in archaeology, fire as material culture, fire as an instrument, also on ceramics, figurines and stamps. He has contributed articles on ceramic technology, kilns and burned houses in the Chalcolithic, and during the last two decades has carried out experiments with the building and burning of wattle and daub houses, with kilns and with other structures involved with combustion. How can the built environment help in the understanding of social and economic changes involving ancient local communities?

Arab Settlements aims to shed light on the degree to which economic and political changes affected social and identity patterns in the regional context from the Nabatean through to the Umayyad and Abbasid periods.


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Settlement analysis is understood to be a crucial tool for accessing the local material culture and characterising the specific identities of the concerned societies. Paperback; xmm; illustrated throughout 51 pages in colour.

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This publication considers the visual, linguistic and religious culture of the Roman province of Lusitania. Roman influence was especially notable in religion and artistic manifestations. It was in the cities where the Lusitanians acquired Roman civilization: they learned Latin, the Frankish language of the peninsula; they were introduced to the Roman administration and religion; and in the third century, when Rome converted to Christianity, so did the Lusitanians. The Latin language was imposed as the official language, functioning as a binding factor and communication between different peoples.

Being a fairly large area and lacking a unified state that promoted a particular language in administration or education, different languages coexisted simultaneously in Hispania. The subjects continued to use their native languages, although official business was conducted in Latin or Greek.

Indigenous religions persisted, although sacrifices were offered everywhere for the emperor and the gods of the Roman pantheon. Visual culture also reflected the hybrid character of provincial civilization.

Encyclopedia of Underwater and Maritime Archaeology | Yale University Press

Images of a Roman style and subject matter circulated widely, and yet the craftsmen and consumers of the provinces maintained their own traditions, adopting Roman techniques and tastes as they pleased. The papers in this volume establish a broad and generous view of the relationship between images, languages and religious culture within Lusitanian society. Paperback; xmm; pages; figures, 25 tables pages in colour. Although these communities were highly mobile, moving through the desert following seasonal variation in natural resources, they significantly invested in the landscapes they frequented by erecting highly durable stone architecture, and by carving rock art and inscriptions.

Although these inscriptions, known as Safaitic, are relatively well studied, the archaeological remains had received little attention until recently. This book focuses on the architectural features, including enclosures and elaborate burial cairns, that were created in the landscape some years ago and which were used and revisited on multiple occasions. It explores how nomadic communities modified these landscapes by presenting new data from remote sensing, field surveys, and excavations.

To better understand the purpose of these modifications and how this changed through time, the landscape is further analysed on various temporal and geographic scales. This book particularly deals with the archaeological landscapes of the Jebel Qurma region of north-eastern Jordan.

It is part of the Landscapes of Survival project, a research programme based at Leiden University that has brought together both archaeologists and epigraphers to work on this fascinating region. Paperback; xmm; pages; 15 figures; 19 tables 13 pages in colour. Cultural Heritage Management in most parts of Africa has been concerned and focused on conservation and preservation of cultural and natural heritage and the development of sites for tourism and economic benefit.

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In this venture, the tangible heritage such as monuments and landscapes become the focus and of primary significance. Therefore, most efforts have failed to grasp the significance and relevance of cultural heritage to the local communities and the existing traditional and cultural attachment to heritage sites beyond the economic gain. Of late, operational guidelines of the WH Conventions have targeted the engagement of communities in the management of their local heritage and shaping visitor experiences.

The major challenge is the implementation of these agreements and restoration of cultural pride in local communities.


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  4. In several heritage sites in Botswana were opened for tourism in addition to the Tsodilo World Heritage Site. Furthermore, in June the Okavango Delta covering a vast range of land occupied by cultural communities was also inscribed on the World Heritage List, becoming the second World Heritage Site in the country. However, insufficient research and analysis has been undertaken to understand how local communities and local cultures respond to these ventures.

    The study is case study based, presenting an overview of community transformation and responses to universalized heritage value and collective global view that characterize heritage status of cultural materials and the interactions of local cultures and traditions with the concepts of heritage and culture in heritage sites as globalised platforms.

    Encyclopedia of Underwater and Maritime Archaeology

    The Dysfunctional State by Malcolm Levitt. Ancient states were rooted in agriculture, sedentism and population growth. They were fragile and prone to collapse, but there is no consensus on the causes or meaning of collapse, and there is an ongoing debate about the importance, nature and even existence of state-wide collapse. Explanations of collapse in terms of the competing mono-causal factors are found inferior to those incorporating dynamic, interactive systems.

    To fulfil these functions certain necessary conditions must be met. The legitimacy of the political and social status quo, including the distribution of political power and wealth, needs to be accepted; the state should be able to extract sufficient resources to fulfil its functions such as defence; it must be able to enforce its decisions; the ruling elite should share a common purpose and actions; the society needs to reflect a shared spirit asibaya and purpose across elites and commoners who believe it is worthy of defence.

    Weaknesses and failure to meet any condition can interact to exacerbate the situation: maladministration, corruption and elite preoccupation with self-aggrandisement can induce fiscal weakness, reduced military budgets and further invasion; it can induce neglect of key infrastructures especially water management. Inequality, a commonly neglected factor despite ancient texts, can erode asibaya and legitimacy and alienate commoners from the defence of the state.

    Malcolm Levitt held posts as lecturer in economics at Liverpool and Hallsworth Fellow at Manchester University where his interest in state collapse originated before joining HM Treasury where he became Senior Economic Adviser. Since completing his MA in Archaeology at the UCL Institute of Archaeology in he has concentrated on deepening the theoretical basis of his dissertation on why ancient states collapsed.

    Spanish text with English abstract. ISBN In the Argentine Northwest, northeast of Catamarca, there are a set of shelters and caves located in the rainforest with rock art with virtually no background. Little is known about the occupants of these spaces and their past practices. In this way, it is possible to approach the understanding of the modalities of appropriation of the people of the inhabited area, the relationship that they would have maintained with the environment, as well as the distinction of various events and uses of different places and, in this way, contribute to the knowledge of the historical, social and cultural development of the area.

    Throughout the reading, we start to glimpse the archaeological landscapes related to rock art for this sector of the southern Andean area. She has participated in diverse research in the south Andean area Argentine Northwest and Bolivia as well as in Sinai and Luxor Egypt and has collaborated with multiple national and international research projects.

    French text. Research on common earthenware from the first half of the 17th century is very elementary, when it exists at all. This study seeks to bring back to life the ceramics, the inhabitants and the site where the objects were used. The collection includes fragments from common earthenware objects coming from the period of occupation of Fort La Tour in Portland Point, New Brunswick. These pieces were mostly made in France, but some are probably of English origin. Mostly through the visual identification of the features included in the ceramic body, a classification system was developed with four main groups, 28 types, and 10 variations.

    With this classification system, earthenware objects were able to be grouped based on the activities for which they were used and related to their uses and functions. This process enabled links to be established with the daily use of the earthenware objects on a French site in the first half of the 17th century.

    Invisible Archaeologies: hidden aspects of daily life in ancient Egypt and Nubia brings together eight of the papers presented at a conference held in Oxford in The papers use a range of archaeological and textual material and span from the Predynastic period to the Late Period. By applying methodology used so successfully within the discipline of archaeology over the past 20 years, they offer a different perspective on Egyptological research, and demonstrate how such theoretical models can broaden scholarly understanding of the Nile Valley.

    She specialises in ancient Egyptian and Nubian ceramics and has participated in several excavations in Sudan with the Sudan Archaeological Research Society. Marines and Army infantry braving Japanese resistance to establish a beachhead before capturing As Lito airfield the following days. The beachhead then served as a resupply landing for the next two weeks or more as U.

    The Biggest ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES - Ancient Roman Shipwrecks - Documentary English Subtitles

    At the end of the battle Chamorro, Carolinian, Okinawan, and Korean residents were relocated into stockades for their separation from Japanese soldiers until liberation on July 4, American military and eventual civilian administration of the San Antonio area transformed the agrarian landscape into a busy corridor of residential, industrial, and then tourist development. Once again in the 21st century, competition for regional tourism and investment makes Saipan a nexus of geopolitical intrigue and economic speculation where the past is not forgotten. With over 40 years of archaeological experience in North America, Latin America, Western Europe, and the Pacific Basin, his interests are equally varied.

    They embrace prehistoric and historic patterns of settlement, subsistence, interaction, power, and conflict. Brenda Y. Over the years, Ms. Tenorio worked on issues ranging from the labor and immigration to bonds and financial assistance packages to the CNMI.

    Tenorio addressed CNMI concerns over citizenship by birth and ownership of submerged land. Cherie has worked in such diverse regions as the Rocky Mountains, the U. Her experience is in all levels of prehistoric and historic archaeological investigations and includes human and non-human osteological analysis bioarchaeology. Cherie has an M. Kathy has 20 years of archaeological experience in the U. Kathy holds a B. Knight, Dot Boughton and Rachel E. Paperback; xmm; 77 figures, 11 tables 43 pages in colour.

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    How did past communities view, understand and communicate their pasts? And how can we, as archaeologists, understand this? In recent years these questions have been approached through studies of the extended occupation and use of landscapes, monuments and artefacts to explore concepts of time and memory.

    But what of objects that were already old in the past? Interpretations for these items have ranged from the discard of scrap to objects of veneration.

    Encyclopedia of Underwater and Maritime Archaeology

    Evidence from a range of periods would suggest objects of the past were an important part of many later societies that encountered them, either as heirlooms with remembered histories or rediscovered curiosities from a more distant past. For the first time, this volume brings together a range of case studies in which objects of the past were encountered and reappropriated.

    It follows a conference session at the Theoretical Archaeological Group in Cardiff , in which historians, archaeologists, heritage professionals and commercial archaeologists gathered to discuss this topic on a broad pre historical scale, highlighting similarities and contrast in depositional practices and reactions to relics of the past in different periods. Through case studies spanning the Bronze Age through to the 18th century AD, this volume presents new research demonstrating that the reappropriation of these already old objects was not anomalous, but instead represents a practice that recurs throughout pre history.

    About the Editors Matthew G. He specialises in the production, use and deposition of Bronze Age metalwork and completed his PhD on the deliberate destruction of metalwork in south-west England in He continues to be fascinated by destructive practices across Europe and is currently preparing a monograph on the subject.

    Dot Boughton originates from Germany and is a prehistoric metalwork specialist who now works as a freelancer and translator in Cumbria. Dot is now a freelance small finds specialist, writing metalwork reports for units and museums.

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